EN TR

Report & Analysis

A Brief Look at Current Surface and Submarine Platforms of The Hellenic Navy

by Saffet UYANIK

Issue 95

The Hellenic Navy is the naval force of Greece, part of the Hellenic Armed Forces. The Hellenic Navy carries out the necessary missions and tasks to preserve the territorial integrity of the country, protect Greece’s sovereign rights and national interests, and fulfill the objectives of the national defence policy. To achieve those tasks, the Hellenic Navy maintains many surface combatants and submarines in its inventory. Greece constitutes a region with significant geopolitical importance for the West with its 6,000 islands and islets scattered in the Aegean and Ionian Seas and it connects the Black Sea, the Straits, the SE Mediterranean, Cyprus and the Middle East. Therefore, the development of naval power is a primary defence objective. The main local operation area of the Hellenic Navy is the Aegean and the Ionian Sea. As Greece lies between three continents (Europe, Asia, Africa), there is a great deal of sea traffic and potentially illegal activity (smuggling, illegal immigration, possible terrorist activity, etc.) This creates an uncertain environment for sea operations and gives adversaries many hiding opportunities. The Hellenic Navy keeps a continuous naval presence on the Hellenic islands, Eastern Aegean, and the broader region of the island of Corfu (Kerkyra). This presence is exercised by warship patrols, which confront any activities against Greece’s national security and assist the Coast Guard in intercepting illegal immigrants as well as smugglers. The Hellenic Navy also contributes to social activities and participates in peace-support missions. Naval operational training is conducted at various levels as the Hellenic Fleet participates in both national and NATO exercises. 

 

To accomplish its missions successfully, the Hellenic Navy disposes of a sizeable fleet consisting mainly of frigates, fast missile boats, and submarines, equipped with modern electronics and weapon systems. The Navy also operates numerous logistic ships necessary for supporting battle units. The frigates which constitute the core of the Hellenic Fleet, with large displacement and strong firepower, can simultaneously conduct all types of missions such as anti-surface warfare (ASuW), anti-aircraft warfare (AAW), and anti-submarine warfare (ASW). The total displacement of the fleet is approximately 150,000 tons, and it is the 22nd largest Navy in the world according to the total number of vessels. The Hellenic Navy also operates several naval aviation units. Modern weapons of the Navy include the HARPOON, PENGUIN, and EXOCET surface-to-surface guided missiles, the SEA SPARROW, and EVOLVED SEA SPARROW surface-to-air guided missiles, and the PENGUIN anti-ship guided missiles fired from the modern S-70B-6 Aegean Hawk helicopters. These helicopters, together with the older AB-212 ASW helicopter and the new P-3B maritime patrol aircraft, constitute the core of the Fleet’s air-arm. They participate both in surface operations and in anti-submarine missions since they are equipped with specialized submarine detection systems and respective armaments.

The Hellenic Navy had its most significant change during the early 1970s when Greece was the first Mediterranean naval force to order missile-equipped Fast Attack Craft (Combattante II) and the Type 209 submarines. US military aid continued in the form of FRAM II class destroyers. In 1979, the Hellenic Navy placed an order for two modern Standard class frigates (the Elli class). These were the first acquisitions of new main surface vessels, rather than the use of second-hand ships, in almost four decades. Hellenic Navy was enhanced to his maximum point during the last decade. The arrivals of Hydra class (MEKO 200 HN) and more Standard class frigates along with the orders for more missile corvettes, Poseidon class Type 209 submarines, and naval helicopters allowed the retirement of the obsolete vessels. Greece also received four Charles F. Adams class destroyers from the US Navy in 1992. However, all four have since been decommissioned as their electronics and missiles were considered not able to stand in a modern battlefield.

The Hellenic Navy’s fleet of warships and auxiliary ships is harbored in the two major HN Naval Bases at Salamis Island near Piraeus and Souda Bay on the island of Crete.

The Hellenic Navy operates 13 frigates as its primary strike force. The fleet consists of the Hydra Class (Meko-200HN) and the Elli Class (Kortenaer Class) Frigates. Four of these vessels are Hydra class frigates, which are based on German MEKO 200 series modular warships. Greece decided to acquire the Hydra class (Meko 200 Mod 3HN) on April 18, 1988. Initially, the program previsioned the commission of six vessels and partially secured through US FMS aid. The lead ship of its class HS Hydra (F-452), which was built by the German company Blohm and Voss in Hamburg, was ordered on February 10, 1989, and commissioned in 1992. The remaining three ships were ordered on May 10, 1989 and constructed at the Hellenic Shipyards in Skaramagas. HS Spetsai (F-453) was commissioned in 1996, HS Psara (F-454) in 1998 and HS Salamis (F-455) in 1999.

Based on the MEKO 200 frigates, the Hydra class is made from high-tensile structural steel with a yield strength of S355 N/mm². The frigates have high-level shock resistance specifications required for the fire control and radar systems, which provide blast and gas pressure protection to preserve the integrity of the onboard weapon systems. One of the key features of the MEKO design concept, the vessels have twelve self-sufficient watertight compartments, which can operate independently of each other regarding the supply of electrical energy, ventilation, air conditioning, and firefighting facilities. The MEKO-200 frigate is also fitted with a permanent air protection system called Constant Sealed System, which increases survivability compared to the other naval vessels. As the compartments can function independently, the bulkheads can be sealed off simply by closing the doors, which significantly enhances damage control. The frigates can also be continuously operated as complete NBC citadels during in extreme cases. The air conditioning, air pressure, and status of outer doors can all be monitored and controlled through the NAUTOS naval automation system. The central NAUTOS, developed by Siemens, can be operated from the two Damage Control Section areas and the damage control headquarters (DCHQ) in the machinery control room (MCR).

The Hydra class frigates have a length of 117.5m, a beam of 14.8m and a maximum displacement of about 3,400 tons. The vessels are fitted with two MTU 20V956 TB82 diesel engines (3,830kW) and two GE LM2500-30 gas turbines (22,300kW) in a CODOG (Combined Diesel or Gas) arrangement. The ships have a top speed of 31 knots (gas turbines) and a cruising speed of 21 knots (diesel). The Hydra class frigates are equipped with the Thales Nederland STACOS Mod 2 (Links 11 and 14) command and control system (C2) and Mk XII Mod 4 IFF. The sensor suite of the frigates includes an MW08 3D air search radar (F/G-band), a DA08 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) medium-range air and surface radar (F-band), two STIR-18 fire control radars (I/J/K-band), and a Racal ARPA26890 BT navigation radar (I-band). The frigates are armed with 8 Boeing Harpoon Block 1C anti-ship missiles packed in two quad launchers (AN/SWG-1A(V)) installed on the upper deck behind the mainmast, and 16 Raytheon Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missiles fired from Mk 48 Mod 2 vertical launchers located aft of the ship’s funnels. In May 2007, Greece awarded Thales to upgrade the STIR fire control system to allow the firing of the RIM-162 ESSM surface-to-air missiles. HS Salamis (F-455) was the first ship to be upgraded, and the other three vessels were upgraded in 2008.

The main gun of the frigates is the FMC 127mm mk45 mod 2A with a fire rate of 20 rounds per minute. The vessels are also equipped with two six-barrel General Dynamics/Raytheon Phalanx Mk 15 Mod 12 close-in weapons systems (CIWS) for self-protection. The anti-submarine warfare system consists of two triple launched 324 mm Mk 32 Mod 5 tubes installed on the port and starboard sides of the ship. The frigates are armed with active and passive homing Honeywell Mk46 Mod 5 torpedoes with a range of 11km. The vessels are fitted with the Raytheon SQS-56/DE 1160 hull-mounted sonar system to detect enemy submarines. The Hydra class frigates use different types of countermeasures for self-defence and electronic warfare. The equipment consists of four SCLAR decoy launchers, SLQ-25 NIXIE torpedo decoy, Argo AR700 electronic support measure (ESM) system, Argo APECS II electronic countermeasure (ECM) system, and Telegon 10 ESM system. The ship accommodates a single Sikorsky S-70B-6 Aegean Hawk or a 10-ton class helicopter. The Aegean Hawk can carry two Mk46 torpedoes or the Kongsberg Penguin Mk2 Mod 7 anti-ship missile.

In 2015, Greece intended to modernize the Hydra class frigates. The Hellenic Navy planned to implement a mid-life modernization program with a cost of €400 Million that would extend their lives to 2035. However, this upgrade was postponed due to the financial difficulties of Greece. In May 2019, the modernization plans were resurrected again with limited funds (€150 Million). As the available funding is not enough for a full modernization program, it is expected to cover only the CMS, ESM, sensors, and radars, which are necessary for the combat capabilities of the ships.

Along with Hydra class frigates, the Hellenic Navy also operates 9 Elli class Frigates. These ships are ex-Royal Netherlands Navy Kortenaer class frigates (also known as Standard class or S-class frigates). Kortenaer class frigates were designed in the late 1960s as a replacement for the older ASW destroyers in service in the Dutch Navy. Between 1978 and 1982, a total of twelve frigates were built in the Netherlands. Ten were constructed at the former Royal Schelde Shipyard in Vlissingen and two by the former Wilton-Fijenoord Shipyard in Schiedam. The lead of the class HS Elli (F-450), and its sister ship HS Limnos (F-451) were sold to Greece while still under construction. These two frigates became the most modern warships of the Hellenic Navy at that time. Eight of the remaining vessels HS Adrias (F-459), HS Aegeon (F-460), HS Navarinon (F-461), HS Kountouriotis (F-462), HS Bouboulina (F-463), HS Kanaris (F-464), HS Themistoklis (F-465), and HS Nikiforos Fokas (F-466) were later transferred to the Hellenic Navy during the period between 1993 and 2003.

The Elli class Frigates have a displacement of around 3,800 tons at full load. The vessels are 130.5m long and 14.6m wide. The propulsion is Combined Gas or Gas (COGOG), which allows the ships to reach full speed in less than two minutes. The ships are fitted with 2 Rolls Royce Tyne RM1C gas turbines (3,700 kW) and 2 Rolls Royce Olympus TM3B gas turbines (19,200 kW) and have a maximum speed of 30 knots with a range of 4,700 nm at 16 knots. The ships are armed with an OTO Melara Compatto 76mm naval gun as their main weapon. The OTO Melara Compatto 76mm has a maximum range of 16 km with a fire of 85 rounds per minute. For self-protection, the Elli class vessels are equipped with a Raytheon Mk15 Phalanx Close-In-Weapon System (CIWS) to defeat anti-ship missiles and other hostile air threats. Unlike the other frigates of the class, HS Elli and HS Limnos have a second gun installed on top of the helicopter hangar instead of the Phalanx CIWS. Alternately, those ships have two Phalanx systems installed on each side of the hangar. Some ships of the class, HS Adrias (F-459), HS Aegeon (F-460), HS Navarinon (F-461), and HS Kountouriotis (F-462) are also equipped with two Oerlikon Mk10 20mm autocannons at each side of the mainmast. The Mk10 autocannon has a maximum firing range of 4,400m and a cyclic fire rate of 450 rounds per minute.

Each frigate is armed with 8 Boeing RGM-84D Harpoon anti-ship missiles carried in two Mk141 quad launchers to engage surface targets. The Elli class frigates also carry Raytheon Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missiles in 8-cell Mk29 Guided Missile Vertical Launching System (GMVLS) to provide anti-aircraft protection. The ships equipped with two twin Mk32 Mod 9 torpedo launchers in fixed positions for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). The tubes can launch Honeywell Mk46 Mod 5 lightweight torpedoes with a maximum range of approximately 11km to engage fast attack submarines and surface targets. A mid-life modernization program for six of these frigates, HS HS Elli (F-450), Limnos (F-451), HS Adrias (F-459), HS Aegeon (F-460), HS Navarinon (F-461), and HS Kountouriotis (F-462), was started at Hellenic Shipyards in 2004 and completed in 2009. The upgrade program aimed to extend the service lives of the frigates by 20 years. As part of the modernization program, the Sewaco Mk2 Combat Management System (CMS) was replaced with Thales TACTICOS system, new and improved sensors like the Thales MIRADOR electro-optical target tracker and Thales SCOUT Mk2 LPI navigation radars were installed, WM25 fire-control radar and LW08 long-range air-search radars were upgraded, Elettronika SPHINX electronic support measure (ESM) was replaced with the EDO CS-3701 system, and flight decks were strengthened to allow the landing of Aegean Hawks. The hangars of HS Elli and Limnos frigates are 2m longer than the Standard class frigates to accommodate an AB-212 ASW helicopter. The modernized frigates can also carry an S70 Aegean Hawk.

The Hellenic Navy currently operates 11 submarines. The newest and most advanced boat of the fleet is the Type 214 Papanikolis Class submarine. The Type 214 is a diesel-electric submarine developed by the German Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW), and it is considered to be one of the most advanced conventional submarines in service. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP) system using Siemens proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (also known as polymer electrolyte membrane - PEM) compressed hydrogen fuel cells. The AIP technology allows the submarine to operate without access to atmospheric oxygen (using a snorkel). The Type 214 is derived from the Type 212 submarine. However, unlike its smaller predecessor, Type 214 lacks a non-magnetic steel hull, which makes the boat hard to detect using a magnetic anomaly detector. Greece signed a contract to procure three Type 214 submarines for the Hellenic Navy on February 15, 2000 and placed an additional order for the fourth unit in June 2002. HS Papanikolis (S-120), the first Type 214 boat, was built at HDW Kiel Germany in February 2001 and launched on April 22, 2004. In January 2005, HDW’s ThyssenKrupp Marine (TKMS) parent company bought Hellenic Shipyards in Skaramangas near Athens and built the other three submarines, HS Pipinos (S-121), HS Matrozos (S-122), and HS Katsonis (S-123) in Greece. 

The pressure hull of the Type 214 submarine is made from advanced HY-100 steel, which allows it to have an increased diving depth of approximately 400m, with a length of 65m and a beam of 6.3m. The displacement of the vessel is 1,700 tons when surfaced and 1,980 tons when submerged. The Type 214 subs have 8 x 533 mm torpedo tubes, and four of the eight torpedo tubes are capable of firing UGM-84 Harpoon missiles. The Papanikolis Class submarines of the Hellenic Navy uses the WASS (Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei) Black Shark heavyweight torpedoes. The Black Shark is a dual-purpose, wire-guided torpedo which is fitted with Astra active/passive acoustic head and a multitarget guidance and control unit incorporating a counter-countermeasures system. The Type 214 subs are powered by Hybrid diesel‐electric main machinery. The boats are fitted with 2 x MTU 16V-396 (3.96 MW) diesel engines, and 2 x Piller Ntb56.40-10 generators (0.97MW). The AIP system is based on 2 x HDW BZM120 PEM fuel cell modules (silver oxide and aluminum, 120 kW each) with a low noise skewback propeller.

The Papanikolis Class submarines have a maximum speed of 12 knots (surfaced) and 20 knots (submerged). The maximum range of the subs is 12,000 nm at 6 knots (surfaced), 420 nm at 8 knots (submerged), and 1,248 nm at 4 knots (fuel cells). The vessels can accommodate a total of 27 sailors, including five officers. The subs can also carry food, fresh water, and fuel for 84 days of operation. The sensor suite of the Type 214 submarines consists of the sonar systems, an attack periscope, and an optronic mast. The ATLAS Elektronik ISUS 90 integrated sensor underwater system integrates all sensors and command and control (C2) functions on board the submarine through the link 11 tactical data link provided by BAE Systems. The Papanikolis class submarines are equipped with a hoistable radar mast that does not penetrate the pressure hull. The radar mast hosts the transmitter of the Thales SPHINX LPI (Low probability of intercept) tactical radar, the electronic support measures system (ESM), and the global positioning system (GPS) sensors.

In 2006, HS Papanikolis was found to have numerous technical problems, which cause excessive propeller cavitation, overheating of the AIP fuel cells, and excessive rolling in bad weather when surfaced. Hellenic Navy refused to accept the delivery of the vessel until all the boat’s technical problems had been solved. In October 2008, the vessel successfully completed a further series of sea trials, which showed that the excessive rolling problem had finally been fixed, and the rest of the problems were also considered solved. In May 2011, HDW canceled the contract for the additional two Type 214 boats in response to bribery allegations involving Abu Dhabi Mar, which became the majority shareholder of Hellenic Shipyards in 2010.

Other than the Type 214 boats, Hellenic Navy also operates a submarine flotilla of seven Type 209 vessels. The Type 209 is a diesel-electric attack submarine developed exclusively for export by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) of Germany. Despite not being operated by the German Navy, five variants of the class (209/1100, 209/1200, 209/1300, 209/1400, and 209/1500) have been successfully exported to 13 countries, with 61 submarines being built and commissioned between 1971 and 2008.  The Hellenic Navy is also the first user of Type 209 vessels. Before the Type 214 entered service, the Hellenic Navy fielded 4 Glavkos class Type 209/1100 boats (S-110, S-111, S-112, S-113) commissioned between 1971-1973, and 4 Poseidon class Type 209/1200 boats (S-114,  S-117, S-118, S-119) commissioned from 1979-1980. 

The Glavkos class includes four Type 209/1100 diesel-electric submarines, constructed at the HDW shipyard in Kiel. In 1989, as the boats neared their 20 years of service, the Hellenic Navy started the “Neptune I” program to upgrade the 4 Glavkos class boats. HS Glavkos (S-110) was retrofitted in Germany in 1991, and the other three underwent a modernization process at the Salamis Naval Base in Greece until 2000. The boats with “Neptune I” upgrades received flank array sonar and significant electronics upgrades, including the ability to fire UGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. In the late 1970s, Greece ordered a second batch of four Type 209/1200 submarines named the Poseidon class in Greece. 

In 2002, Hellenic shipyards began the “Neptune II” modernization program. HS Okeanos (S-118), the third vessel of the Poseidon class, was modernized at Hellenic Shipyards as part of the Neptune II program and recommissioned into the Navy in 2014. The upgrades included cutting the hull and installing a 6.5m long Air-Independent Propulsion section, hydrogen storage tanks for the AIP, flank array sonar, electronics upgrades, an electro-optic mast with satellite communication capability, and Harpoon missile firing capability. The new upgrades were so extensive that HS Okeanos (S-118) is categorized now as a Type 209/1500.

There are several variants of the Type 209 submarines with different model numbers. Although the dimensions may vary slightly between them, all versions are powered by a combined diesel-electric arrangement that features 4x MTU diesel engines and 4x 120-cell AEG generators. The AEG electric motor is directly attached to the propeller. The Type 209 boats have a maximum speed of 11 knots on the surface with up to 22 knots when submerged. The maximum range is 11,000 nm at snorkel depth with a mission endurance window around 50 days. The vessels can dive to a depth of 250m; however, they can also dive to 500 in theory. Just as the other diesel-electric submarines, the boats are required to surface to recharge their batteries and to replenish their oxygen supplies. The vessels have a total crew complement of 35. The Type 209 submarines are armed with 8x 533 mm bow torpedo tubes and 14 torpedoes. The vessels can dispense naval mines and the Type 209/1200s used by Greece are also capable of launching UGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles.

The Hellenic Navy operates ten gunboats of the Osprey and Asheville Class. Both Osprey HSY-55 and Osprey HSY-56A classes are designed by the Hellenic Navy following a modular concept so that weapons and sensors can be changed as required. They were built by Hellenic Shipyards (HSY) in Greece. These ships are similar to Gunboats Class HSY-55 and were also constructed by Hellenic Shipyards (HSY). They are the most modern patrol vessels of the Hellenic Navy. The first ship of the class named HS Machitis (P-266) was commissioned on October 29, 2003. These vessels are similar in appearance to Gunboats Class Osprey 55. The first pair was ordered on February 20, 1990. HS Pyrpolitis (P-57) was launched on September 16, 1992, and HS Polemistis (P-61) on June 21, 1993. Each ship can carry 25 fully equipped troops. Alternative guns and Harpoon missiles can be fitted as required. All of the four ships of the class are still in active service. The two Asheville Class gunboats are former US Navy vessels, bought and transferred to Greece in 1989.

The fleet consists of 17 Missile Boats, also known as Fast Attack Missile Crafts. A fast attack craft (FAC) is a small, fast, agile and offensive warship armed with anti-ship missiles, gun or torpedoes. FACs are usually operated in close proximity to land as they lack all-round defensive capabilities to survive in blue water. The size of the vessel also limits the fuel, stores and water supplies. Their displacement may vary between 50–800 tons and can reach speeds of 25–50 knots. The primary purpose of these vessels is fast-attack offensive anti-ship warfare. The Hellenic Navy operates four types of missile boats. These are the Roussen (Super-Vita), Laskos (La Combattante III), Kavaloudis (La Combattante IIIb), and Votsis (La Combattante IIa) classes. The La Combattante III and La Combattante IIIb were upgraded in 2006. For the Combattante III crafts, Thales delivered a TACTICOS combat management system, including four multifunctional operator consoles, one surveillance radar, a fire-control tracking system, one electro-optical tracking, and a fire control system, an integrated low-probability-of-interception radar, two target designation sights, and a tactical data link. The weapon suite of the Combattante IIIs remained unchanged. Thales was also responsible for the integration of existing guns, surface-to-surface missiles, and torpedoes. The La Combattante IIa ships are scheduled to be decommissioned upon completion of the two newly ordered Roussen gunboats. 

The Roussen class is a British-design fast attack missile boats improved and customized for the Hellenic Navy. The plans of the Roussen Class missile boats are based on smaller Vita class boats serving in the navies of Qatar, as well as similar size vessels built for Oman and other countries. The hull is made of steel and the superstructure is made of Aluminum. Vosper Thornycroft (now BAE Systems Surface Ships) provides the electricity transmission system, the management board, electrical equipment and systems countermeasures. The main armament of the ships is eight Exocet MM40 Block II/III anti-ship missiles with a range of up to 70/180 km respectively. They are complemented by an Otobreda 76 mm naval gun in the bow and two smaller 30mm cannons as secondary weapons located on the ships’ superstructure. The vessel’s primary anti-air and anti-missile weapon is the RIM-116 RAM missile system which comprises an on-board Mk-31 launcher with 21 projectiles, as well as the DR3000 and AR900 electronic support measures systems and the Mk36 SRBOC decoy launcher. The sensor suite includes the MW08 3D G-band surveillance radar, the Mirador electro-optical target tracker and the Scout Mk-II low probability of intercept (LPI) radar which is integrated to the TACTICOS combat management system.

The Hellenic Navy currently operates 9 Tank Landing Ships of the Greek built Jason Class (LST) and the Ukrainian/Russian built Zubr Class (LCAC). The Jason landing craft can transport 287 troops plus 22 battle tanks or any other combination of other armored vehicles. The Jason-class LST is a tank landing ship designed and built in Greece through a cooperation of Elefsis Shipyards with the National Technical University of Athens and the Hellenic Navy. Along with the Zubr class LCAC, they are the main amphibious warfare ships of the Hellenic Navy. The first was laid down on 18 April 1987, second in September 1987, third in May 1988, fourth in April 1989 and fifth in November 1989. Completion of all five and the last three were severely delayed by the shipyard’s financial problems, which was privatized in October 1997. Greece tried to start building a sixth ship in 2000 but cancelled it before construction began. The ships are capable of transporting 350 infantry troops, but they can transport up to 1,200 infantries for short distances, and they can also carry up to 22 main battle tanks (MBTs) or a variety of other equipment such as armored personnel carriers (APCs), howitzers, MLRS, and, trucks. Each ship of the class is armed with one Oto Melara 76mm/62 Mod 9 compact naval gun, two Breda 40mm/70 guns and two smaller Rheinmetall 20mm (2 twin) guns. The primary radar of the ships is the Thomson-CSF TRS-3030 Triton (G-band) 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface Radar. The Thomson-CSF Vega II command and control system and Pollux TRS3220 fast-scanning fire control radar is also installed on the ships.

The Zubr Class is an air-cushioned landing craft (LCAC). This class of military hovercraft is, as of 2012, the world’s largest, with a standard full load displacement of 555 tons. The hovercraft is designed to sealift amphibious assault units (such as marines and tanks) from equipped or non-equipped vessels to non-equipped shores, as well as transport and plant naval mines. The purchase of HS Cephalonia (L-180) for the Hellenic Navy was the first time a Soviet design had been built for and purchased by a NATO member. The Zubr crafts have a military lift of total 130 tons of cargo with 3 battle tanks, 8 armored vehicles, 10 personnel carriers and 140 troops or combinations of those and a speed of 40 knots when fully loaded. The Zubr class landing craft has a cargo area of 400 square meters and a fuel capacity of 56 tons. It can carry three main battle tanks (up to 150 tons), or ten armored vehicles with 140 troops (up to 131 tons), or 8 armored personnel carriers of total mass up to 115 tons, or 8 amphibious tanks or up to 500 soldiers (with 360 soldiers in the cargo compartment)