An Overview on German- Turkish Armament Cooperation

Due to the long-standing membership of both states in NATO, an intensive military-political cooperation already exists amongst Germany

Issue 12 - October 2008

In the frame of education relations of both states, The Turkish authorities and also the future-to-be Defense attaché from Turkish Armed Forces Academy will attend in Central General Staff Academy Seminar in Hamburg. Since year 2000, the German attendees regularly visit „PfP-Training and Education Centre“ for courses, in Ankara. The „Centre of Excellence - Defense Against Terrorism“ (COE-DAT) in Ankara was opened n August 2005 and since Summer 2006 it is supported by a German Staff Officer as the director of “Department of Conception”. Furthermore, within the frame of NATO Operations, the German Navy Unit will harbor in the Turkish Ports in Mediterranean Sea. The emphasis is on gut cooperation in ministerial level, which would bring nice impressions through mutual visits, that took place for the last time I March 2007. The wish for the continuation of good bilateral collaboration was once again strengthened during the visit to the armament fair IDEF through the Parliamentary State Secretary. Within NATO, Turkey also considered Germany as a military partner after USA. In bilateral relations, the year 2005 played a crucial role in making the closed agreement about issuing 298 combat tanks of Leopard 2A4 to Turkey besides playing a role on making of intensive armament relations in Navy branch.

The next step is the signing and thus making a successful completion of a bilateral general armament agreement between Germany and Turkey, but before its frame has to be formed for offering further armament agreement.

2. Why Armament Cooperation ?

The confirmed armament agreement amongst Germany and other nations are thrown under a change by time and they are supposed to be adjusted to fit in the aforementioned frame qualifications. They are not just to be altered due to the actual transformation process, but also they have to be modified according to the future challenges of German armed forces. In this process, naturally the main armament inspectorate is also involved, thus this attempt of a closer usage of synergy resources through armament cooperation came up, that would make it safer to fix the full function facilities of this amour field.

Institutionalized multi-national armour cooperation takes place in the frame of NATO, EU und LoI besides the armour agencies like EDA and OCCAR, in addition to the existing bilateral armament agreement that endorses the institutionalizing armour cooperation.

Ths “Armament Cooperation” should encompass the collaboration in technological area in bilateral and multi-national frame with other nations as supporting armour export. Especially, this aforementioned armour cooperation should must be understood with all contribution activities in armament field in Germany

• With one or more nations by research, development, advancement or acquisition of technology i.e. defense material collaboration,

• One other nation by research, development ,or acquisition of technology i.e. defense material support,

• Defense material to be bought from another nation (countries charges and commercial export),

• Meetings / Dialogue on he basis of stipulations (MoU, LoI) takes place.

Moreover in he frame of purchases of armour goods that are not used any more from depot-inventory due to shrinking and contingent by transformation process of federal defense as also in private commerce fiels in recent times that are amplified for purchases of armour goods.

3. Preservation of National Nuclear Technology

The armour cooperation should ideally also serve for the preservation of national nuclear technology. Thus, the protection of essential nuclear technology of German technological industry is to be supported within the frame of valid export law guides. Basically, the entire nuclear technology within export frame must be supported. Still there are fields, that require special support due to low national request; such as in field of navy construction of war ships, and U-Boots, besides the proper sensors and effectors or by land systems of arms and munitions parts.

From this aspect, with regard to a armour cooperation, no general statements can be done, but for each partnering a diverse fact in in respectively Army-, Air force- and Marine armour i.e. amour-economy aspects are available those by a possible cooperation attracts attentions and gain importance.

By administrative accompany of export plan – a political endorsement / support is assumed – and the priorities along the identified nations nuclear technologies will be affixed.

4. Armour Cooperation under F&T-Aspects

The new technologies and their research are a present element for future military system i.e. applications. The preparation connoting armament projects necessitated considerable resources. A division of work with capable international partners can for the further development of special technologies and conduce efficient development of defense materials. The technological achievement potential of a country is consequently meaningful for the choice of the possible partner.

For the cooperation in technological area, F&T can be fundamentally conduced thereto, the trust basis for enstrengthenning the collective vindication efforts of partner countries.

5. Judicial Frame Qualifications in Germany

The KWKG and the AWG constitute the frame that the Federal Government opens an appraisal and administrative discretion for the all major armour exports; where an exception is practically in less considerable circumstances, where the KWKG compulsively prohibited the issuance of an authorization. For a similar exertion of the Federal Government’s appertained political discretionary for ensured compliance and besides to make the applied fundamental political adjudication criterion transparent, the “Political Basic Law of Federal Government for the export of War Weapons and further Amour Goods” since 1983 (amended in Januar 2000) is enforced on the basis of individual cases. Ther, upon the request of armour exports amongst the EU and NATO States circles and equivalent states (Australia, New Zeeland, Japan and Switzerland) on one hand as other states (called third parties, third states) and on the other hand distinguished. By the group of the first states, the authorization of rules and disaffirmations that are the exceptions are stated, by the second group of states the export of war weapons are only exceptionally authorized and it can only be on the table only when for issuance of an approval of special foreign or security political interests of Germany.

For the other armour goods approvals are only issued so long the concerns protected in the of foreign trade law are no more compromised.

6. Targets of the Armour Cooperation

The retention of an accomplishment and competition in German industry on technology basis and armor economy in nuclear fields as a precondition for a forthcoming cooperation possibility that comes to a special meaning.

The targets of German armour cooperation policy are in “Concept for New Strategy in Armament Field” from April 2007 under giving priority to cooperation in Europe-wide and within the transatlantic frame as stated in the following:

• Allocation of common abilities for harmonized receivables.

• Advancement of nuclear technology from a capable technology industry in Germany till there a private commercial, competitive, European structure is established.

• Reducing from multi-case capacities and acceptance opposite dependence by secured military maintenance of the respective national armed forces

• Usage of synergy in partner linkage

• Implementing market economy principles on European armour market.

These targets draw the base for the cooperation with further states beyond NATO and EU, insofar as these lands for dismantling the conflicts, with tracking German collective security interest followed and democratic demeanours noting as commitments in armament control field, armour export control and non-proliferation assumption.

7. Armour Cooperation between Germany and Turkey

The armour cooperation between Germany and Turkey began in the frame of assistance and exchange programs that were ended by the year 1995.

The constant respectable cooperation in Navy field, the amplification of relations for the land forces (through reference Leopard 2 A4), technologically highly valuable cooperation possibilities between the air forces and the signers of the general armament agreement constituted a good basis for an amplification of collaboration with Turkey in the armour field. Turkey is – among the security policy handling – coined through the amplitude on technology, that found place in application cooperation.

Turkey offers, also not least, on the basis of her climbing economic power and technological innovations capacity for armour cooperation with the Federal Republic as an up-and-growing talent potential.

Basis for the cooperation so long is as in the following agreement:

- On the ground of the state-backed agreement from the year 1972 is from BWB accomplishments and support performances employing mandate agreement is implemented. Examples are accomplishments of replacements and assemblies; in corrective maintenance contracts.

- For the deepening of cooperation in the marine armour field is „Marine Technical Settlement “ that is closed on January 19, 2000.

- Thereon beyond a Portfolio-Secret Defense Agreement exists dated 11. August 2000.

- A German-Turkish governmental agreement for armour (General armour agreement) takes the final inspection through the Turkish defense ministry for the time being .

8. Turkish Armour Domain

The executive committee of Defense Industry is composed of the leadership of Prime Minister, the Chief of the General Staff and the Defense, if the armour material for the Turkish armed forces procures. The accomplishment takes place between state secretaries for the defense industry (SSM), an organization unity of defense ministry’s. In the frame of direct acquisitions, the commander-in-chief of the branches of the armed forces are responsible.

9. Current Armour Cooperation with Turkey

Germany was and is a significant cooperation partner for Turkey. The armour relations between Germany and Turkey, for the time being, are an instant for comprehensiveness.

The aspiration for full membership in the European Union has consequentially in research, development and manufacturing areas i.e. acquisition of defense material industrial cooperation with European states has a high meaning. Especially the value is hidden in Turkey but in bilateral cooperation, the multi-lateral agreement and commitments in armour precedence area acknowledged.

Turkey follows since years consequently the strategical objective targets to establish in the middle-run a capable armour industry, in order to avoid a dependence in imports of armour goods and seeks creating a possibility for special armour exports and to improve it. Congruously, the Turkish armour industry attends to all open proposal and bid calls. The activities in armed forces activities are minted from the release of 298 battle tanks Leopard 2A4. This program serves the Turkish Army as armoured vehicle-launched bridge (bruckenleger) solution till to afflux of the new Turkish battle tanks. (National Modern Battle Tank Project).

Turkey bought two COBRA artillery detection radars from the Federal Republic. For the mandate agreement, Turkey brought modifications. The shipping of both of the systems are followed in due time mid-2007. Turkey has enormous interests in attendance in the tri-lateral usage phase (Germany-France and Great Britain) under the Management of OCCAR. The dialogue is to be initiated.

The German suit of armour director decided to support the armoured vehicle-launched bridge (bruckenleger) project LEGUAN 1 and to correspond for the wish of Turkey, about the acquisition of Bypass for the Turkish armed forces to adapt in mandate; even though the Federal Republic is not the user of that device.

The armour relations in the navy field are exemplary for the outworking of the Turkish goal statements by the development of marine technology and equipment with the support of foreign establishments building with a special capacity. The German industry received a range of international concurrence in the past about: construction of frigates, submarine boats, speed boats and mine hunter boots.

Within such frame, the complementation of under see boats of GÜR-Class renewed 6 Under see boats AIP (außenluftunabhängig – dependent on outside air ) for acquisition. These are ought to be constructed in land and be subject to, correspondingly, comprehensive technology transfer. Turkey has asserted itself other than the self developed corvettes in MILGEM Project, and will continue being interesting for the German armour industry.

Within the scope of modernization of its transportation aircraft fleet, it purposes acquiring 10 Airbus A400M, whereto parts of collective manufacturing in Turkey will be trans-located. Prospectively the air and spacecraft technology fields play a stronger role within armour cooperation context, between Turkey and European defense industries. Concrete proposals are the acquisition of War- and Transport Konkrete Vorhaben sind die Beschaffung von Kampf- und Transport-helicopters, anti-air-craft-missile systems, combat aircrafts elonging to 4th geberation and the extension of the ability in air-/space-backed clarification (GÖKTÜRK). An eventual involvement of the German industry is for the time being not open.

The decision about participation of Turkey in tri-lateral (France, Spain and German) Program A-UAV is still pending, and admittedly is is going to be greeted by the German side.

10. Outlook

The German – Turkish Armour Relations is developing positively.

The common initiated and prospective projects are going to be executed and deepened in cooperation and both of the states are going to benefit ft a technological exchange.

In the summer of 2006, both of the nations of the affirmed interest apprehended on a bilateral general armours agreement. In the March of 2007, a bilateral Memorandum of Understanding-Negotiation group met in Ankara, so that an common step is already worked out

The bilateral general armour agreement between both of the states is hopefully will be signed shortly and thereby a further deepening i.e. improvement of the relations is going to be obtained. Moreover, obviously for the main department of armament, it is estimated that a defense-technique attaché will be appointed to the body of the Embassy in Ankara in year 2009.