The new designs in global civil aviation involves the development of aircraft

Issue 30

Bearing in mind these targets, within the coverage of the largest research and development project to date in the European aviation sector, approximately 1.6 billion Euros will be allocated. Under the project named ‘Clean Sky’, 6 work packages that basically are connected to each other is planned, and the following areas will be considered as a basis in these 6 packages called the Integrated Technology Demonstrator (ITD). SMART Fixed Wing Aircraft is the area where active wing technologies will be developed and to a large extent that can change shape daily, where the wings can be adapted to different missions and where morphing skin design and production is researched. Green Regional Aircraft will deliver low-weight aircraft using smart structures as well as low external noise configurations and the integration of technologies developed in other ITDs. Advanced composite materials and advanced flight control systems will be evaluated and analyzed within this context. The Green Rotorcraft will deliver innovative rotor blades for noise reduction, lower airframe drag, integration of diesel engine technology and advanced electrical systems for elimination of noxious hydraulic fluids and fuel consumption reduction for helicopters. Sustainable and Green Engines will design and build five engine demonstrators to integrate technologies for low noise and lightweight low pressure systems, high efficiency, low Nox and low weight cores and novel configurations such as open rotors and intercoolers. Systems for Green Operations will focus on the development of all-electrical aircraft equipment and systems architecture and improved ground operations. Eco-Design will not only focus on green design and production but also on the withdrawal and recycling of aircraft by optimal use of raw materials and energies thus improving the environmental impact. The use of materials such as bamboo in biological resins and composites are among the topics covered within eco-design. All technologies developed will be assessed by a simulation network called the Technology Evaluator. The Clean Sky projects are being implemented by such European aviation giants as Airbus, Fraunhofer, Dassault Aviation, EADS, Alenia Aeronautica, AugustaWestland, Safran, Thales, SAAB, Eurocopter, Liebherrand and Rolls Royce. In addition, as part of the 7th Framework Program, universities, research institutes and SMSEs provide proposals in participating in the projects [1].
Even though the work is being carried out for the 2020 period, large aircraft manufacturers are developing and manufacturing the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the Airbus A350 XWB in which the new technologies of the day are being utilized.
The Boeing 787 has the advantage of being on the market before and where the composites are being used at such a large rate. Indicating that it will decrease flight operational cost by 10% and fuel cost by 20%, Dreamliner also targets decreasing CO2 emissions by 20%. In the meantime, the evaluations carried out indicate that while the Boeing 767 will require heavy maintenance approximately once every 6 years and the Boeing 777 once every 8 years, the Boeing 787 will require heavy maintenance once every 12 years. Aside from this it has been indicated that other maintenance will take place at longer intervals than the other notable aircrafts [2].
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