Leonardo’s World-Class Technology and Industrial Collaboration Form the Heart of the Company’s Offering in Turkey

Issue 94

Leonardo has worked with Turkey for many years, contributing to a number of important defence and security programs. Recently, the Company re-branded its in-country subsidiary as Leonardo Turkey Havacılık, Savunma ve Güvenlik Sistemleri A.Ş. (Leonardo Turkey Aviation, Defence and Security Systems Inc.). The new name highlights the subsidiary’s focus on the needs of Turkey and its ability to provide a comprehensive defence and security offer to the country, which is seen as a strategic market in Leonardo’s industrial plan. 

The Turkish Armed Forces currently have access to growing budgets so will be looking to equip themselves with best-in-class products and systems. With this in mind, Leonardo stands ready to share its 70 years of experience and expertise in supplying state-of-the-art systems and technologies for Turkey’s high-level requirements for defence, protection and security across a number of domains: air, land, naval, space and cyberspace. Leonardo is also an ideal industrial partner, looking to build mutually beneficial relationships in full coordination with the Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB). 

Some potential areas for collaboration where Leonardo is already in discussion with Turkish industry relate to flagship Leonardo products such as the KRONOS radar family and VULCANO guided ammunition. These could both play a role in the modernization of Turkey’s Armed Forces and Leonardo is also looking at ways of addressing the export marketplace in partnership with Turkish industry. 

KRONOS radar systems are state-of-the-art products which can meet today’s emerging threat scenarios, especially where armed forces need to improve security and response times while reducing manpower requirements. Offering high flexibility, operational modularity and reliability, the main role of a KRONOS system is to detect, track and identify targets and to provide weapons systems with targeting data, including TBM (Tactical Ballistic Missile) defence capabilities. The radars can be easily deployed, deliver high performance for a number of operational uses, and are highly reliable with graceful degradation. They are multi-functional, multi-mission systems, which can perform surveillance and tracking tasks both simultaneously and independently. 

This multi-functionality and ability to deliver multiple modes simultaneously is based on the KRONOS family’s use of Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology. This has been developed in-house by Leonardo which boasts its own Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) manufacturing capability. AESA technology has become prominent in the radar marketplace due to the benefits it offers over traditional mechanically-scanned array radars. KRONOS radars also come with a stealth function, which limits the radar cross-section, making it less vulnerable to countermeasures. Both land and naval operations have benefitted from the introduction of AESA technology and Leonardo has been at the forefront of innovation in this area. The KRONOS family includes both land and naval variants. 

KRONOS GRAND and KRONOS LAND are both designed for Land missions. KRONOS GRAND is a multifunctional radar system designed by Leonardo to support tactical air and coastal defence operations. The system simultaneously performs surveillance, target tracking and electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). It can detect and track all types of air and maritime threats and is easy to integrate into a defence surveillance network, contributing to the broader Recognized Air picture (RAP). KRONOS LAND is a very compact, flexible and fully autonomous radar system for tactical operations. It fits within an ISO container with a volume of just 20 square feet. It can be transported by standard commercial trucks, helicopters, aircraft, ships and trains, can be deployed on unprepared sites by two people and made operational in 10-15 minutes from its arrival on site.

KRONOS NAVAL, KRONOS GRAND NAVAL and KRONOS Power Shield are state-of-the-art naval variants. KRONOS NAVAL can equip naval vessels for applications such as point defence against threats, air and sea surveillance, littoral warfare, missile and gunfire support. The system can detect and track all types of air and maritime threat, such as high-speed missiles, low level unmanned aerial vehicles, helicopters, rockets and artillery blasts from offensive gunfire, vessels and small maneuverable surface targets. In addition, the Company is providing new operational capabilities which are deemed necessary for shipborne radars, for example Anti-Tactical Ballistic Missile (ATBM) capabilities, which are considered a priority by potential users due to the increasing use of these threats. KRONOS GRAND NAVAL is the most advanced multifunctional naval radar worldwide and, as with KRONOS Power Shield, is designed to cover the full spectrum of capabilities required in modern, complex scenarios for ballistic missile defence and surveillance. Naval KRONOS family radars can be easily integrated into a defence surveillance network, contributing to the overall Recognized Air Picture (RAP). In addition, when integrated into a surface-to-air missile system, the radar can provide multiple missile uplinks simultaneously, providing information to allied forces and enabling complete interoperability in critical environments. 

The KRONOS family of radars draws on Leonardo’s experience in the development of multi-functional radar systems. To date, around 40 KRONOS radar systems have been delivered to customers including Italy (one of the Company’s domestic markets) as well as South America, the Middle East and the Far East. 

In the naval defence domain, the Turkish Navy is a key customer for Leonardo. Over the years around 60 naval defence systems, which include the 76/62 Compact, 40L70 Twin Compact and 30mm Micro Fire Control System (MFCS), have been provided for a range of naval units. For Turkey’s Milgem follow-on corvettes Leonardo has been supporting the 76/62 Super Rapid naval gun, configured to use Strales guided ammunition. Meanwhile, Leonardo is proposing its 127/64 naval gun, configured to use VULCANO GPS-guided ammunition, for Turkey’s TF-2000 class frigates. 

VULCANO is a family of guided ammunition developed by Leonardo with Diehl Defence under an Italian-German government agreement. Variants include the VULCANO 127mm for navies and the VULCANO 155mm for land-based artillery, transforming indirect fire. Both calibers have completed qualification in accordance with STANAG 4667 and are ready for the market. The baseline versions of both include GPS based guidance and Height of Burst (HOB) sensors. The armed forces of several nations have expressed interest in the range and performance of VULCANO. In Turkey, the current focus is on VULCANO 155mm for the Turkish Army, and discussions are ongoing with local manufacturers for possible collaboration and local production. 

VULCANO ammunition’s combination of IMU-GPS navigation with Semi-Active Laser (SAL) or Far-Infra¬red (FarIR) sensors enables it to engage even small stationary and moving targets with direct hits at extended ranges. The naval ammunition features flight sequences which comprise a Ballistic Flight Path involving initialization and GPS acquisition, a Glide Path with Mid-Course GPS navigation and Terminal Homing including SAL Mode, Far Infrared (FarIR) mode or GPS as backup. VULCANO 127mm Guided Long Range (GLR) can achieve a range up to 85 km fired from a 127mm/64 cal. naval gun mount. It is equipped with either SAL (for semi-autonomous Terminal Homing missions), FarIR (for autonomous missions against Targets with an IR-Signature) or Height of Burst (HoB) sensors (for GPS Guidance towards pre-programmed coordinates). The mission spectrum of the VULCANO 127mm includes Naval Fire Support (NFS) and Anti-Sur¬face Warfare (ASuW). 

For land requirements, VULCANO 155mm performs flight sequences which encompass a Ballistic Flight Path involving Initialization and GPS Acquisition, a Glide Path with Mid-Course GPS Navigation and Terminal Homing with SAL mode or GPS as backup.  VULCANO 155mm GLR land artillery ammunition relies on GPS Mid-Course guidance and a HoB Sensor for optimal performance against various targets. 

VULCANO 155mm GLR can achieve a range up to 70 Km fired from a 155/52 cal. system. It can also be equipped with Semi-Active Laser (SAL) sensor in the Terminal Homing phase for pin-point engagement of stationary or moving ground targets. SAL Terminal Homing also eliminates target location errors. Laser designation is achieved by the human-in-the-loop Joint Fire Support Team (JFST) and offers the possibility of aborting a mission. Combining a laser sensor with a high-performance prefor¬med-fragmented warhead (PFF) featuring insensitive munition characteristics (IM), strongly enhances the capability of accurate target engagement. For land applications, a VULCANO Programming Unit (Integration Kit) and a portable Fire Command Unit (stand-alone) VULCANO 155GLR are provided