Issue 10

Features of SKYWATCHER System are;
 Producing real-time air picture by combining target track information from various distributed sensors (Sensor Fusion),
 Real-time monitoring of the airspace utilizing digital maps,
 Distributing air picture to the weapon systems,
 Distributing air picture to other command centers,
 Target identification utilizing IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) Systems at radars,
 Various analysis tools over digital maps,
 Observing and sharing the position, operational status, and equipment information of system units,
 Manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic optimum target assignment,
 Preparation of simulation scenarios for training of system operators,
 Record and Replay function,
 Defining and distributing Airspace Control Orders (ACO) and Battlefield Geometries for the control of airspace,
 Compatibility with military standards,
 Open system architecture compatible with modern sensor and weapon systems, and technological upgrades,

A state-of-the-art SKYWATCHER system basically comprises the following units;
i) Air Defense Operation Centre (ADOC): ADOCs at different hierarchical levels (Army, Corps, Brigade, etc.) perform all the necessary command control and information system functionality
ii) Interfaces to the sensor systems: These units provide interfaces to the radars that detect and track targets
iii) Interfaces to the weapon systems: These units provide interfaces to weapon systems that take necessary action against airborne threats
iv) Interfaces to other command control systems: These units provide interfaces to other command control systems for interchanging the air picture.
ADOCs are linked to the radar sites through Radar Interface Units and to weapon systems through Weapon Interface Units. Fast and secure communication link of the Tactical Communications System establishes a real time connection among the sensors and weapons, providing a minimized reaction time for intercepting all types of airborne threats.
Operators of the ADOC can observe the computer generated real time air picture on which friendly/hostile forces together with safe/unsafe air corridors on digital maps are displayed. Status, availability and coverage information of sensors and weapon systems are also displayed on the screen.

SKYWATCHER system process, which is shown by the above figure, works by carrying out the following activities:
1. Sensors locate the targets.
2. Target tracks are transmitted to Air Defense Operation Centre (ADOC).
3. ADOC assigns the most suitable weapon.
4. Assigned weapon unit destroys the hostile air threat.
1.3.1 Air Defense Operation Centres (ADOC)
Air Defense Operation Centres (ADOC) are the main command control components of SKYWATCHER. Fusion of air track information gathered from all the radars connected to the ADOC will be realized and a combined air picture will be formed. Then, ADOC will send the combined air picture to weapon systems and other command centers.
The radars transmit target track information to ADOC. Using these information, ADOC firstly generates air picture and assigns the targets to the most suitable weapon systems. When ADOC operators obtain the information that the tracks observed from their display belongs to an enemy, they assign the target to the available weapon systems. While engaging the target to the weapon, ADOC operator can easily observe whether the target is in the range or the weapon is engaged to another target.
ADOCs are either
• Built on a tactical truck that is equipped with a shelter (Mobile ADOC) (Figure 4)
• Built in a stationary operation room (Stationary ADOC) (Figure 5)
comprising computer and communication systems and associated peripherals.

1.3.2 Radar Interfaces
Radars is connected to SKYWATCHER System via Radar Interfaces. All the connected radars will send the air track information to ADOC.
Radar interfaces can be used for all kinds of radars (search, tracking, primary, secondary, etc.) in the short, medium and long ranges.
ASELSAN Air Defense Radar is one of the search and tracking radars that is integrated to SKYWATCHER.
As the sensors of SKYWATCHER system, radars provide target information (target type identification, location, velocity information etc.) for all the targets within their coverage.
Radar Interfaces comprise a dedicated computer with specific software, communications equipment and associated peripherals. Sample Radar .
1.3.3 Weapon Interfaces
Weapons will be connected to SKYWATCHER System via Weapon Interfaces. Air picture of the interested area and target assignment information will be provided to weapons over Weapon Interfaces.
Weapon Interface can be adapted to the different kind of air defense weapon systems (classic and modern weapon systems including MANPADS, Pedestal Mounted Air Defense Missiles, Towed Anti-Aircraft Guns, Self Propelled Anti Aircraft Guns, etc.)
Weapon Interfaces comprise a dedicated computer with specific software, communications equipment and associated peripherals. Man-Portable Surface-To-Air Missile System (MANPADS) Interface
MANPADS Interface includes cueing equipment and digital compass inclinometer in addition to dedicated computer with specific software, communications equipment and associated peripherals. Figure 7 shows Man-Portable Surface-To-Air Missile System Interface.
Operation of the interface is as follows: Target assignment information and real time location data of the assigned target sent by the ADOC can be observed on the MANPADS Interface’s computer display. The gunner can direct the gun towards the target by tracking the cueing equipment sight fitted on the launch tube even in adverse weather conditions of the battlefield.
Optionally, cueing information can also be shown on the sight of the thermal camera or night vision google that is integrated on MANPADS. Pedestal Mounted SHORAD Weapon Interface
Figure 8 shows Pedestal Mounted SHORAD Weapon Interface.
Figure 8: Pedestal Mounted SHORAD Weapon Interface
Pedestal Mounted SHORAD Weapon is directed automatically or manually by the Operator and tracks the target with received real time Target Track Data.
Currently, ASELSAN Pedestal Mounted Air Defense Systems (PMADS) ATILGAN and ZIPKIN are integrated to the SKYWATCHER as the SHORAD Weapons.
All modern pedestal mounted air defense missile systems and self propelled air defense gun systems with digital interface can be integrated to SKYWATCHER System in a similar manner. Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun Interface
Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun Interface is used to connect Anti-Aircraft Gun System that is controlled by Fire Control Radar to the SKYWATCHER system. Air Defense Gun Systems Interface
Air Defense Gun Systems Interface connects the manually operated air defense gun systems to the SKYWATCHER system.
Figure 10 shows the Air Defense Gun Systems Interface. Weapon Section Commander Interface
Weapon Section Commander Interface is designed for army hierarchies where a group of weapons of the same type is coordinated by a section commander.
For example, if a group of MANPADSs are coordinated by a Weapon Section Commander, Weapon Section Commander Interface is utilized as shown in Figure 11.
1.3.4 Interfaces to Other Command Control Systems
Other command control systems will be connected to SKYWATCHER System via these units for interchanging the air picture.
For example SKYWATCHER has the capability to interchange the air picture with the systems interoperable with LLAPI (Low Level Air Picture Interface) according to NATO standards, as shown in Figure 12.
Some of the software properties that is common for all SKYWATCHER components are as below:
• With menu-based structure, graphical user interface of the SKYWATCHER is easy to learn and easy to use.
• Help menu provides all information needed by system operators and is accessed directly through software.
• Software provides messaging capabilities between SKYWATCHER units.
1.3.6 SKYWATCHER Communications Infrastructure
SKYWATCHER provides the communication among system components either by
• Wireless Networks (Radios, Radio Links, etc.)
• Cable Communications (Copper lines, fiber optical communications, etc.)
Among those communications alternatives, ASELSAN’s field proven ISTAR TDMA radios are recommended to provide a reliable communications backbone to fulfill the communication requirements of SKYWATCHER. Since seamless data exchange between sensor, command control and weapon systems is a must, high capacity data radios suitable for the rugged platforms are needed. In the SKYWATCHER Turkish Army application (HERIKKS), ISTAR TDMA Radios are being used enabling voice communication between command posts as well as carrying out the required data exchange between sensors weapons and command posts. As the SKYWATCHER system is scalable depending on the requirements of the army, the number of iSTAR TDMA radios will change according to the number of mobile units and the area coverage concept.
The Communication Network Structure of the SKYWATCHER System is given in Figure 14. As seen on the figure, different networks such as Sensor/Weapon Network, Command/Control Network, and Weapon Network are established as necessary. The communication equipment available in the inventory of Customer can be integrated to the communication system as long as technically appropriate